Afghanistan has a less reader of newspapers, coupled with the low 28.1% literacy rate. The first newspaper, Siraj-ul-Akhbar in was initially published on January 11, 1906, with Abd al-Rauf as editor. After this first and only issue in Dari (Persian), its publication stopped. It was revived in October 1911 by Mahmud Tarzi, the editor and owner of the newspaper. The principal daily newspapers are the state-owned Anis, Arman-e Melli, and the privately owned Afghanistan Group of Newspapers which includes The Daily Outlook Afghanistan - The first Independent English Newspaper of Afghanistan and The Daily Afghanistan in local languages of Dari and Pashto,Cheragh fuonded by first Afghan lady Kathreen Wida in Dec. 2003,Eslah, and Kabul Times and Khaama press and Eradeh, Hewad, Ittefaq-e Islam, and Shari'at. In Afghanistan 400 publications are now registered.